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Some Biological Misconceptions

Explanation/disclaimer: click to expand/contract

Functions of cells

Ovum - to let sperm cell in

Leaf palisade cell - to ease photosynthesis

The tail of a sperm - enables it to swim around the woman to find the egg

- carries strands of genetic information

- enables it to swim in the blood stream

Importance of reactions of heart and breathing to stress:

- help you to feel more emotion

- shows you are normal

- you don't want it to work too hard in case it causes a heart attack

- more oxygen will calm you

- because your muscles are tense

- to help the brain cope with the shock

- the heart beat quickened slowly

- you must breathe quickly or you will have too much oxygen in your blood

Descriptions of the birth process

The baby is soon conceived, usually head-first, and it now starts breathing by itself

When the woman's waters break, the amniotic fluid has contractions

Soon the mother will get the ultimate pain and out will pop the baby

At birth, the baby passes through the Fallopian tubes

Later, the baby gets restless and decides to make an appearance

A lactating woman is

- one who beast feeds

- one who is working manually, i.e. doing hard work

- one with high level of lactic acid (after birth)

- one who is starting to stop being able to have babies

- one who has had her womb removed

- one with insufficient fibre

- one who is getting old

- one who is producing milk in her glands after birth

- suffering from a disease or disorder

At puberty

- testes leave the body

- hair grows in the vagina

Ecological disasters

(As a result of growth in numbers of predators) the population of aphids would decease

Levels within ecological pyramids : 1st & 2nd traffic levels

The middle of the food change

If the population of chiffchaffs went down, sparrowhawks would decrease in size

Vision defects

The image is reversed and sent to the brain via
the optical nerve .... optical fibres .....optimistic nerve

The eye deals with different light intensities by adjusting the amount of lights the eye lets in

Adaptations to life in deserts by different foxes

(both foxes - the ears shade the face)

Fennec fox

- can hear pray in desert

- needs big hears

- can hear things further away

- could flap its ears to cool itself

- has large ears to help it to see when it gets dark

- could have a sweat gland to excrete water from

- needs big ears to conceal itself

Arctic fox

- can close its ears to keep the cold out

- wants to be aerodynamic

- has small ears which point forwards to focus on prey

- has small ears so as not to hear the wind

- ears are useful for listening for movement on either side

- smaller ears are less hard to attack

- has smaller ears because sound travels farther in the cold

Adaptations of cacti

Spines protect any animals (or living things!) eating it

Stem is short so minerals do not have to travel so far

Roots cover a large area looking for water

Food for thought

In vacuum packed food
... bacteria cannot multiply and so preserve the food ... conditions are anearobic

Stainless steal is easily cleaned

When dehydrated, food loses all its liquids

There is more food poisoning in summertime because
... flies bread more ... fills breed more

Food is preserved by irradiation because bacteria are killed so they cannot do their job

The fruit (added to yoghurt) is treated to make it the same as the milk

Spores can be carried on the wing

When you place polythene over it
..... the bread cannot breathe .... the bread sweats

At this temperature the yeast was being killed so it did not breed

(Comment on shape of graph) The volume increases and decreases in an irratic manner

Q How can bacteria be transmitted from person to person?

A1 By mixing bodily fluids - saliva, blood, semen

A2 If someone has a byte of food then so does another person

Ways of reducing infection:

1 remove a person's blood

2 destroy the infection

3 regular visits to the local rector

Means of preventing malaria:

- anti incest cream

- complete all chores during the day

- take precautions at night

Precautions when choosing people in each group when testing antimalarial drugs:

- they must be all male or female

- make sure the people are old and possibly expendable

- all should be in good condition and drink bad water.

Sewage purification?

The photograph acts as a filter in the sewage works

In an activated sludge tank, faeces and mud float to the bottom

As it passes through the rocks, the sewage liquid becomes more soluble

Part of the process involves activated slug

If the treatment of sewage was inadequate, the government would impose barriers

The sewage works can then see the effect that they have on the environment

The hair follicle needs a blood supply so your hair can stay alive at the bottom

Melanin protects against ultra violet Ray

We used pippets to put drops of oil in the measuring cylinder

List effects of alcohol on the body: baby in the womb

Food stays in the stomach for up to 3 hours before being realised

A balanced diet keeps you away from illness

Fat keeps you insulated by giving you a fatty layer above the skin

The animal cell appears to have no apparent shape

We need protein for rebuilding lost cells

The amount of water must be below the point at which the bean seed is "drowned" and consequently depraved of oxygen

When no water was used this provided an extreme minimum

We kept the beans in some quiet shallow containers.

Homeostasis tells the brain when to go to the toilet

Negative feedback is when you urinate

Why does pondweed produce carbon dioxide in the dark? It is asleep

How does sugar (produced in a leaf) reach the roots?
Sugar is heavier than water and it sinks to the roots

As you pick up a book your arm relaxes .... later on your arm contracts

(Description of a voluntary action) .... this sends nerves down the spine

Muscles of the arm ... the foreceps

When cold the body absorbs less urine to cool itself down

External digestion means that the fungus disgusts the food away from its body

Food should be chewed before being swallowed - so that the tongue can roll it into a bolas

The asouphagus

Function of a drone bee: to fertiliser the eggs which the queen produces

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