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Hard to swallow?

Digestion breaks large molecules into smaller ones which can be swallowed.

Salivary amylase is secreted by the pituitary gland.

Humans and ruminants both feed on dead organic matter with an alimentary canal.

Once in the nephron the fluid is known as glamorous filtrate.

Ruminants - do not need to eat meat and poultry - live on pasteur

Oxygen acts as a used electron acceptor.

(Experimental precaution in photosynthesis investigation)
You must leave the pond with the light shining on it for 10-15 minutes.

Photolysis is (a) the splitting of light (b) hydrolysis of water.

(Problems with GM plants)

Herbicides might become resistant to plants.

Consumers may gain resistance.

Villi absorb broken up molecules into the blood stream.

The pesticide kills the spider mite but they can still reproduce.

The biological control agent illuminates the pest.

Novel hormone treatment on the farm


Pigs use up their eggs faster.

Hormone treatment may affect piglets born in a negative way.

The percentage of the cow becoming pregnant is low.

The donor cow's embryos died as the recipient cow was not ready to fertilise it.


A bull can be hired

All sows can be mated at the same time

Other little known facts about reproduction

Oestrus prevents any more eggs from being released.

FSH simulates the ovaries.

FSH directs the egg to develop follicles

Pituitary is responsible for the secretion of sex cells (gametes).

Other hormones are made in the interior of the pituitary gland.

This causes the Graafian follicle to be released.

First the fungus is put into a fermenter, then boiled at its optimum temperature.

Light can affect photosynthesis as it is converted into energy.

Light intensity was an inflicting variable.

Sunken stomata draw up water from deep in the ground.

Maize is grown in preference to wheat to increase both the rates of photosynthesis and temperature.

Description of Semi-conservative replication

Because it's a copy of itself and it's reduced to half, then the DNA is doubled.

DNA is originally diploid, then it halves in number to become haploid then the DNA replicates to become diploid again.

When the venom is introduced to the horse's blood the antibodies are able to recognise that the venom is dangerous.

An antigen recognises an invading antibody.

The artificial gene may be upside down in the molecule, rather than the right way up, as in the natural gene.

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