Summer 2017 selection (a)

Explanation/disclaimer: click to expand/contract

Sex determining gene

This means the egg will develop testes

Y chromosome produces testerone

If the sex determining gene states 'XY' ...

The sperm carries chromosomes to the womb to fertilise the egg

The sex-determining gene looks for the Y chromosome

The gene will cause the chemical reaction to start to develop testes

The winning sperm decides the gender

The SRY gene releases a hormone that develops testes

Sperm have a chemical in them which determines whether the fertilised egg becomes male or female

If the X and the Y chromosomes join together the result is a male

The sex-determined gene give instructions to make proteins

Women are the only gender that can act as carriers

In each sex cell there is 23 alleles

The Y chromosome develops testes

The more dominant gene from the father and mother would determine whether the fertilised egg develops into a male or a female

Cystic Fibrosis, Huntingtons

These disorders are inside you and won't have any impact on your outside

The alleles for HD are too well hidden for the sufferer to know until they start receiving symptoms

Huntington's moves down a generation in age each time

Alleles inside our genes determine our characteristics

He may have inherited a carrier gene


Males have more dominant alleles than women

The Y chromosome is shorter so the allele will have no other alternative route


It is made within the male gamete therefore more likely to pass down to a male

It affects the immune system and since men have a higher metabolism, it is easier to contract

Males have two X chromosomes which means double the chance of getting the genetic disorder

The gene only attaches to the X chromosome

The allele is only found on the X chromosome, which means that females have double the chance of getting the disorder

Negative feedback

... is when water exits the body, but not as much re-enters the body as left the body

... how much water the body already has, so you don't drown yourself by drinking too much water

... is when the liver tells you that you need more water inside your body and this tricks your brain into thinking you are thirsty

... where the body tells another part what is going wrong and how to improve

... when negative information is received

... when scientists collect data, then when information comes back poorly then they call it a fair test or negative feedback

... the body's way of balancing itself

... when the body gives back the bad blood to the heart

... when you are not high-drated ...

... when a negative microbe that is not meant to be in your body goes into your body

If someone has negative feedback they will sometimes cry and this lowers the amount of water that is in your system

Effects of alcohol

The alcohol in the wine has altered the concentration of water in the body

By drinking wine his body gives more arbitrary to the urine (ref to graph labelling)

Alcohol itself has a substance in it which makes the cells in your brain make you go to the toilet

For the body to have the correct concentrated urine produced, it needs water inside you and alcohol affects how the kidney distributes water across your body

.. once the pituitary gland has released the kidney ..

His urine will eventually return to normal as he may drink water which is released from the pituitary glands which will keep the homeostasis the same

This means more ADH needs to be reabsorbed into the body

When your body does not have enough water it will take water from where you hold it e.g. urine and hold it in your kidneys so you can then urinate

The water in his bladder has been replaced with wine which isn't as good at turning into urine

Drinking wine alters the concentration of salts in the body

As more alcohol is taken in, more blood is pumped which will make it normal

The kidney becomes insoluble

Water content in his blood will decrease making him have weak blood

The ADH will release the liquid by different ways for example sweating or urinating

When you drink, your brain and kidneys produce less urine

There are a few minutes where nothing changes because the wine needed to be digested first

Alcohol can leave the body in sweat or urine

As a result kidneys reaborb more ADH

The body would have to create water to hydrate the body and to flush out the wine

Wine prohibits the concentration as it controls the brain, stopping it from alerting the kidneysfrom flushing out the wine

The pituitary gland releases ADH to the livers

The body has to work hard to remove the nutrients from the alcohol

The ADH is telling him that he has to go to the toilet

... dieheretic hormone ....

Ways the body gains water

Paws in your skin

Blood pressure (different ethnic groups)

This means his heart will not be able to let bad things out

Higher blood pressure may be caused with getting too much sun

Caucasians have lower high blood pressure

Food chain

Less energy is needed along the food chain as each animal becomes more superior

When a larger predator consumes a smaller prey, energy is always lost due to it escaping

Sea water pH as an indicator of Global Warming

This will change the water to a more green-yellow or green type colour

Water is a universal indicator so it will change colour

A lot of carbon dioxide means the greenhouse layer is thickening

Sea water is mainly acidic due to the sodium and as the earth is getting warmer, the ocean is too

The colour of the pH will determine how much CO2 is in the water

Greenhouse gases are the product of global warming

Energy transfer within food chain

There are lapses in time between the transfers, and during this time the energy has been transferred to other places

As the energy goes to the next animal in the food chain then the larger the animal gets

The numbers are also similar - they can all be divided by each other

Ideas about energy suggesting why owls are unlikely to have any predators

They stay up in trees away from predators, they are nocturnal and can rotate their head    Home     Contents     Contact via form     Contact via email     Howlers     Books     WWWlinks     Terms of use     Privacy