Site author Richard Steane
The BioTopics website gives access to interactive resource material, developed to support the learning and teaching of Biology at a variety of levels.

The body's defence systems against microbial diseases

First line

- prevention of entry due to physical and chemical barriers;

Second line

- non specific

Third line

- specific immune system

Antibodies produced by lymphocytes (white blood cells) in response to antigens on the surface of cells of invading micro-organisms.

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